ASTM Standard D1784
This standard covers PVC and CPVC compounds used in the manufacture of plastic pipe, valves, and fittings. It provides a means for selecting and identifying compounds on the basis of a number of physical and chemical criteria.Conformance to a particular material classification in this standard requires meeting a number of minimum physical and chemical properties.

ASTM Standards D4101
This specification covers polypropylene materials and physical characteristics of PP(Polypropylene) suitable for injection molding and extrusion.

ASTM Standards D2665 and 3311
These standards provide the material and test requirements as well as the fitting geometries for PVC-DWV(drain, waste and vent) fitting. These fittings are joined by threading or solvent cementing.

ASTM Standard D2466
This standard covers Schedule 40 PVC threaded and socket fittings. Included in the standard are thread and socket specifications, lay length, wall thickness, burst, pressure, quality and identification requirements.

ASTM Standard D2467
This standard covers Schedule 80 PVC threaded and socket pressure fittings. Included in the standard are thread and socket specifications, lay length, wall thickness, burst pressure,quality, and identification requirements.

ASTM Standard D2846
This standard covers plastic hot and cold-water distribution system components made in one standard dimension ratio. This includes a series of CTS ( copper tube size) CPVC fittings meant for use with SDR 11 tube and plastic-to-metal transition fittings.

ASTM Standard D2855
This standard describes a procedure for making joints with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe, both plain ends and fittings, and bell ends by solvent cements.

ASTM Standard F1498
This standard covers dimensions, tolerances, and gagging of tapered pipe thread used on plastic ends of pipes and fittings.

ASTM Standard F1970
This standard covers fittings and appurtenances intended to be used in PVC or CPVC plastic piping, or as a transition from such systems to metal systems. These products, such as union, flanges, or valves, are not included in the scope of other ASTM specifications.

ANSI/NSF Standard 14 (National Sanitation Foundation)
This standard establishes the minimum physical and performance requirements for plastic piping system components and related materials. It also provides a basis for certification of products to consensus standard, or other physical and performance requirements where no consensus standard exists. It requires adherence to appropriate ASTM standard and specifies minimum qualify control programs. To comply with this standard the manufacture must allow periodic testing of product and auditing of procedures by a third-party agency.

ASME/ANSI Standard B16.5
The standard covers the pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions, tolerances, marking, testing, and methods of designating openings for pipe flanges and flanged fittings of Pipe Flanges and Flange Fittings. The requirements and recommendations regarding flange bolting, flange gaskets, and flange joints are also included. It includes the rating class designations 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 in sizes NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 in both metric and U.S units. However, it has the limitation from certain reducing flanges made from cast, forged, or plate materials.


BS 759-1:1984
Valves, gauges and other safety fittings for application to boilers and to piping installations for and in connection with boilers. Specification for valves, mountings and fittings.

BS 1212-3:1990
Float operated valves - Specification for diaphragm type float operated valves (plastics bodied) for cold water services only (excluding floats).

Flanged automatic control valves for the process control industry (face to face dimensions).

Specification for face to face, center to face, end to end and center to end dimensions of valves.

BS 2456:1990
Specification for floats (plastics) for float operated valves for cold water services.

BS 5155:1992
Specification for butterfly valves.

BS 5156:1990
Specification for diaphragm valves.

BS 5417:1976
Testing of general purpose industrial valves.

BS 5418:1984
Specification for marking of general purpose industrial valves.

BS 5793-4:1987
Industrial process control valves - Specification for inspection and routine testing.

BS 5793-6:1986
Industrial process control valves - Specification for mounting details for attachment of positioners to control valve actuators.

BS 6283-4:1991
Safety and control devices for use in hot water systems - Specification for drop-tight pressure reducing valves of nominal size up to and including DN 50 for supply pressures up to and including 12 bar.

BS 6683:1985
Guide to installation and use of valves.

BS EN 917:1997
Plastics piping systems - Thermoplastics valves - Test methods for resistance to internal pressure and leak tightness.

BS EN 28233:1992
Thermoplastics valves - Torque - Test method.

BS EN 60534-1:1989
Industrial process control valves - Industrial process control valves - Control valve terminology and general considerations.

BS EN ISO 5210:1996
Industrial valves - Multi-turn valve actuator attachments.

BS ISO 4401:1996
Hydraulic fluid power - Four port directional control valves - Mounting surfaces.

ISO - International Organization for Standardization - Valve Standards

ISO 41 26-1 :2004
Safety devices for protection against excessive pressure-Part 1: Safety valves.

ISO 5208:1993
Industrial valves; Pressure testing of valves.

ISO 5209:1977
General purpose industrial valves; Marking.

ISO 5211:2001
Industrial valves - Part-turn actuator attachment.

ISO 7121:1986
Flanged steel ball valves.

ISO 7508:1985
Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U) valves for pipes under pressure; Basic dimensions; Metric series.

ISO 7714:2000
Agricultural irrigation equipment- Volumetric valves- General requirements and test methods.

ISO 8233:1988
Thermoplastics valves; Torque; Test method.

ISO 8659:1989
Thermoplastics valves; Fatigue strength; Test method.

ISO 9393-1:2004
Thermoplastics valves for industrial applications - Pressure test methods and requirements - Part 1: General.

ISO 9393-2:1997
Thermoplastics valves- Pressure test methods and requirements - Part 2: Test conditions and basic requirements for PE, PP, PVC-U and PVDF valves.

ISO 9635:1990
Irrigation equipment; Hydraulically operated irrigation valves.

ISO 9644:1993
Agricultural irrigation equipment; Pressure losses in irrigation valves; Test method.

ISO 9911:1993
Agricultural irrigation equipment; Manually operated small plastics valves.

ISO 9952:1993
Agricultural irrigation equipment; Check valves.

ISO 10522:1993
Agricultural irrigation equipment; Direct-acting pressure-regulating valves.

DIN - Deutsches lnstitut fur Normung - Valve Related Standards

DIN 3202-4
Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of valves; Valves with female thread connections.

DIN 3202-5
Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of valves; Valves for connection with compression couplings.

DIN 3230-3
Technical delivery conditions for valves; Compilation of test methods.

DIN 3230-4
Technical Conditions of Delivery for Valves; Valves for Potable Water Service, Requirements and Testing.

DIN 3339
Valves; Body component materials.

DIN 3352-1
Gate Valves; General Information.

DIN 3356-2
Globe valves; Cast iron stop valves.

DIN 3543-3, Publication date:1978-07
PVC tapping valves for plastic pipes; Dimensions.

DIN 3852-1
Ports and stud ends with metric fine pitch threads, for use with compression couplings, valves and screw plugs; Dimensions.

DIN 3852-11
Stud ends and tapped holes for use with compression couplings, valves and screw plugs - Type E stud end dimensions.

DIN 19578-1
Stop valves for site drainage systems; Anti-flooding valves for faucal sewage systems; requirements.

DIN 20042
Water valves, nominal pressure 40 - Dimensions and requirements.

DIN EN 28233
Thermoplastics valves; Torques; Test method (ISO 8233:1988).

DIN EN 736-1
Valves - Terminology - Types of valves.

DIN EN 736-2
Valves - Terminology - Part 2: Definition of components of valves.

DIN EN 736-3
Valves - Terminology - Part 3: Definition of terms (includes Amendment A1:2001); English version of DIN EN 736-3:1999 + A1:2001.

DIN EN 917
Plastics piping systems - Thermoplastics valves - Test methods for resistance to internal pressure and leak-tightness.

DIN EN 1705
Plastics piping systems - Thermoplastics valves - Test method for the integrity of a valve after an external blow; German version EN 1705:1996.

JIS - Valve Standards
Japanese industrial valve standards and specifications from JSA - the Japanese Standards Association

JIS B 0100:1984
Glossary of terms for valves.

JIS B 0116:1978
Glossary of terms for packings and gaskets.

JIS B 2001:1987
Nominal size and bore of valves.

JIS B 2002:1987
Face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of valves.

JIS B 2003:1994
General rules for inspection of valves.

JIS B 2004:1994
General rules for marking on valves.

JIS B 2005:2004
Test procedures for flow coefficients of valves.

JIS B 2007:1993
Industrial-process control valves - Inspection and routine testing.

JIS B 2064
Butterfly valves for water works.

JIS B 2071:2000
Steel valves.

JIS B 2401:1999

JIS B 8410:2004
Pressure reducing valves for water works.

JIS B 8414:2004
Relief valves for hot water appliances.


AAS: Acrylonitrile Acryate-Styrene Polymer
ABS: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
ALK: Alkyd Resin
AMMA: Acrylonitrile Methyl Methacrylate Copolymer
AS: Acrylonitrle-Styrene Copolymer (see SAN)
ASA: Acrylonitrile Styene-Acrylate Copolymer (AAS)
BMC: Bulk Mouding Compound
BUNA: Nitrile Elastomer
CA: Cellulose Acetate
CA-MPR: Elastomer Alloy Melt Processable Rubber
CAP: Cellulose Acetate Propionate
CF: Casein Formaldehyde
CFE: Polychlorotrifluoroethylene(See PCTFE)
CM: Chlorinated Polyethylene(see CPE)
CMC: Carboxymethyl Cellulose
CN : Cellulose Nitrate
COPE : Polyether Ester Elastomer
CP: Cellulose Propionate(CAP)
CPE: Chlorinated Polyethylene(PE-C)
CPMC: Granular Polyester Moulding Compound
CPVC: Chlorinated Poly Vinyl Chloride(PVC-C)
CR (Neoprene) : Chloroprene Rubber
CS: Casein Plastics
CSM: Synthetic Rubber
CSPE: Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene
CTA: Cellulose Triacetate
DMC: Dough Moulding Compound
EA-TPV: Elastomer Alloy Thermoplastic Vulcanizate
E/P: Ethylene Propylene Copolymer
EC: Ethylene Cellulose
ECTFE: Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene
EEA: Ethylene Ethylacrylate Copolymer
EP: Epoxide or Epoxy
EPDM: Ethylene Propylene Rubber
EPS: Expandable Polystyrene
ETPE: Ethylene/ Tetrafluoroethylene
EVA: Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer
EVOH: Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer
FEP : Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
FPM (Viton): Fluorel
GF: Glass Fiber
HOPE: High Density Polyethylene(PE-HD)
MP: Mineral Powder
NBR: Nitrile Butadiene Rubber
NR: Natural Rubber
PA: Polyamide or Nylon
PC: Polycarbonate
PE: Polyethylene
PFA: Perfluoroalkoxy
PP: Polypropylene
PPC: Polypropylene Copolymer
PTFE: Polytetrafluoroethylene
PU: Hard Polyurethane Elastomer
PVB: Polyvinyl Butyral
PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride
PVDC: Polyvinylidene Chloride
PVDF: Polyvinylidene Fluoride
PVF: Polyvinyl Fluoride
SBR: Styrene Butadiene Rubber
SUS: Steel Special Use Stainless
TPR: Thermoplastic Rubber(elastomer)
TPU: Thermoplastic Polyurethane
TPV: Thermoplastic Elastomer or Rubber-Cross Linked (rubber)
UPVC: Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride
VP: Valve Plastic


ANSI: American National Standards Institute
BAR: 14.5 PSI
BSP: British Standard Pipe
Class 10: Pressure Rating 10 Bar At 23°C(145 PSI At 73°F)
Class 12: Pressure Rating 12 Bar At 23°C(174 PSI At 73°F)
D: Pipe O.D. In Millimeters
DN: Diameter Nominal For Metric Fittings
IPS: Iron Pipe Size (ASTM)
FIPT: Female Iron Pipe Thread
MIPT: Male Iron Pipe Thread
JIS: Japanese Industrial Standard
MIPT: Male Iron Pipe Thread
NPT: National Pipe Thread (ANSI)
NSF: National Sanitation Foundation
PIP: Plastic Irrigation Pipe
PN6: Pressure Rating 6 Bar At 22°C(100 PSI At 73°F)
PN10 : Pressure Rating 10 Bar At 22°C(150 PSI At 73°F)
PN16 : Pressure Rating 16 Bar At 22°C(235 PSI At 73°F)
SOCKET: Solvent Weld Socket
SPIGOT: Spigot End (IPS)
SRBSP: Special Reinforced BSP Thread
SR FIPT: Special Reinforced Plastic Female Iron Pipe Thread
FBSP: Female BSP Thread
MBSP: Male BSP Thread
MM: Millimeter


PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride
PVC is stronger and more rigid than most other thermoplastics due to its high tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. It's the most common thermoplastic material used for piping system components, including valves, fittings, flanges and many specialty products. PVC has excellent chemical and corrosion resistance to a broad range of fluids including acids, bases and salts. PVC is resistant to hydrocarbons and alcohol, etc. It is an excellent material for process water service, industrial and laboratory chemical waste drainage and piping. However, it can be attacked by many organic chemicals such as ketones, aromaticsand some chlorinated hydrocarbons. The maximum recommended service temperature of PVC products is 60°C(140°F). PVC is joined by solvent cementing, threading and flanging.

CPVC - Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
Chlorinated PVC is used for higher temperature applications than PVC, especially for handling hot corrosive liquids. With similar chemical and corrosion resistance to PVC, increased chlorine content gives CPVC superior thermal resistance. CPVC is not recommended for use with chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, or polar solvents such as ketones. The maximum recommended service temperature of CPVC products is 93°C(200°F). CPVC is proven to be an excellent material for hot corrosive liquid, hot and cold water distribution. CPVC is joined by solvent cementing, threading and flanging.

PE - Polyethylene
Polyethylene is perhaps the most common olefin material. Because it is an olefin, it cannot be joined with cement, but must be assembled by mechanical means such as barbed insert and mechanical fittings.
PE is light weight, low cost, has excellent chemical resistance, low coefficient of friction and is non-toxic. It is commonly used for cold-water transportation.

It is generally divided into three classifications as follows:

Low Density Polyethylene(LDPE) is good for temperatures up to 60°C(140°F) and is mostly used in food handling equipment, brine tanks and dispensing equipment. It can be hot gas welded.

High Density Polyethylene(HDPE) is more rigid and less permeable than LDPE. It is suitable for temperatures up to 71°c(160°F) and is commonly used for abrasion resistant piping, caustic storage tanks and control tubing. It can be hot gas welded.

Cross-Linked High Density Polyethylene(XLPE) has superior environmental stress-crack resistance and extremely high impact strength. It is suitable for temperatures up to 71°C(160°F maximum, and is commonly used in large tanks for outdoor service. However, it cannot be hot gas welded).

PP - Polypropylene
Polypropylene is commonly used for drainage of mixed industrial chemicals and suitable for a wide range of applications in the petroleum industry since it is resistant to sulfur-bearing compounds. It is the lightest thermoplastic piping material which has outstanding chemical resistance. It is suitable for temperatures up to 82°C(180°F) in drainage. It is not recommended for some organic chemicals, such as chlorine-containing solvents, aliphatic series and aromatic hydrocarbon.

PPC - Polypropylene Copolymer
It is a copolymer of propylene and polybutylene. It is tougher and more durable than homopolymer polypropylene (PPH) and has excellent abrasion resistance and good elasticity. It is made of high molecular weight copolymer polypropylene and possesses excellent dielectric and insulating properties. It is suitable for temperatures from freezing up to 93°C(200°F). PPC is joined by butt and socket fusion.

PVDF- Polyvinylidene Fluoride
It has versatile chemical resistance to ordinary acids & salts and many organic solvents, such as aliphadics, aromatics, and the chlorinated groups. It tends to be attacked by some organic chemicals such as polar solvents. i.e. ketones, esters, and amides. High resistance up to a high temperature of 138°C(280°F).

ECTFE - Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene
It is manufactured from Halar resin. It is a durable copolymer of ethylene and chlorofluoroethylene that has excellent chemical resistance to solvents, strong acids and bases. It also has excellent abrasion resistance, electric properties, low permeability, capable temperature from cryogenic to 172°C(340°F) and radiation resistance.

There are three kinds of Teflons- PTFE TEFLON, FEP TEFLON and PFA TEFLON.

PTFE - Polytetrafluoroethylene
PTFE has outstanding resistance to chemical attack by most chemicals and solvents. PTFE has a temperature rating of -129°C(-200°F) to 260°C(500°F) PTFE, a self-lubricating compound, is used as a seat material in ball valves.

FEP Teflon - Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
FEP can be melt-extruded and fabricated by conventional methods. However, the recommended temperature is from -54°C(-65°F) to 149°C(300°F). This material has a smooth surface and in thin sections it is transparent, but as the thickness increases it eventually becomes translucent.

PFA Teflon- Perfluoro Alkoxy
PFA is not as permeable as PTFE. It has excellent melt-process ability and properties rivaling or exceeding those of PTFE Teflon. It can resist up to 260°C (5OO°F) with better resistance, especially superior stress and crack resistance with good flex-life in tubing.

ABS - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
ABS has a smooth inner surface and superior resistance to deposit formation. This makes ABS drain, waste and vent material, ideal for residential and commercial sanitary systems. The residential DWV system can be exposed in service to a wide temperature range. ABS-DWV has proven satisfactory for use in applications where the temperature can vary from -40°F to 180°F. These temperature variations can occur due to ambient temperature fluctuations or the discharge of hot liquids into the system. ABS- DWV is very resistant to a wide variety of materials ranging from sewage to commercial household chemical formulations. ABS-DWV is joined by solvent cementing, threading, flanging and can easily be connected to steel, copper or cast iron through the use of transition fittings.

It is durable in high temperatures. As the temperature increases, the high tensile strength and flexural modulus decreases. It is resistant to chemical attack and is used primarily for precision pump parts.

FPM - Viton or Fluorel
FPM is used in 0-rings and seals. It exhibits a very broad range of chemical resistance, including petroleum oils, di-ester based lubricants, silicate fluids and greases, halogenated hydrocarbons and mineral acids. FPM is not recommended for use with ketones, amines, anhydrous ammonia, hot hydrofluoric or automotive brake fluids. The maximum recommended service temperature of FPM is 204°C(400°F).

EPDM - Ethylene Propylene Rubber
Used in 0-ring seals, EPR is recommended for water, chlorinated water, dilute acids, alkaline, alcohols and has excellent resistance to ozone. EPR is not recommended for petroleum, petroleum oils, some strong alkaline lubricants. The maximum recommended service temperature of EPR is 149°C(300°F).

Buna- Nitrile Elastomer
Nitrile elastomers perform well in petroleum oils & fuels, silicone oils & greases, ethylene glycol and dilute acids. The maximum recommended service temperature of FPM is 135°C(275°F). However, it doesn't perform well in aromatic hydrocarbons, automotive brake fluid, halogen derivatives, ketones, phosphate ester, hydraulic fluids and strong acids.

Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP)
A plastic material strengthened by glass fibers. It offers many advantages over traditional materials for its high strength, light weight, flexibility of design, high strength-to weight ratio, dimensional stability, corrosion resistance and low tooling costs. Corrosion-resistant fiberglass products offer extended service life over metals.

Epoxy is an epoxide polymer. It has been widely used in industries since 1960. It has good electrical, thermal, chemical resistance and an excellent temperature resistance up to 149°C(300°F). The strength of epoxy can be increased with fibrous reinforcement or mineral fillers. This is commonly seen.

It has enhanced mechanical properties compared to polyesters with improved physical strength, better impact and thermal shock resistance. It offers in general excellent resistance to acids, alkalis, hypochlorites, and many solvents. It is recommended for most chlorinated mixtures.

Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic polymer. It has excellent resistance and low permeation to oils, fuels, and organic solvent. It has outstanding resistance to fatigue and repeated impact. It can be used in applications from -34°C(30°F) to 121°C(250°F).